ISSN: 0034-8376
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ABSTRACT

Non-Nutritive Sweeteners: Evidence on their Association with Metabolic Diseases and Potential Effects on Glucose Metabolism and Appetite

VOLUME 69 - NUMBER 3 / May - June (In-depth Review)

Alonso Romo-Romo, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico
Carlos A. Aguilar-Salinas, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico
Rita A. Gómez-Díaz, Department of Medical Investigation in Clinical Epidemiology, UMAE Hospital de Especialidades, Mexico City, Mexico; School of Medicine, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico
Griselda X. Brito-Córdova, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico
Donají V. Gómez-Velasco, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico
María J. López-Rocha, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico
Paloma Almeda-Valdés, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, México, D.F., Mexico

There is ongoing debate concerning non-nutritive sweeteners, their usage, and their effects on metabolism. The association between non-nutritive sweeteners consumption, development of metabolic diseases, and changes in appetite-regulating hormones is not clear. The aim of this article is to present an overview of non-nutritive sweeteners and to examine the scientific evidence of their effects on glucose metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones. Some observational studies suggest an association between non-nutritive sweeteners consumption and development of metabolic diseases; however, adiposity is a confounder frequently found in these studies. Results of the available clinical trials are heterogeneous and not comparable because of major differences between them. Future controlled studies evaluating specific non-nutritive sweeteners, with an appropriate sample size, including a uniform study group, with sufficient exposure time, and considering adjustment for confounder variables, such as anthropometric characteristics, previous consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners, and coexistence of significant metabolic comorbidities, are needed.

Keywords: Non-nutritive sweeteners. Diabetes. Metabolic syndrome. Obesity. Appetite hormone.

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