ISSN: 0034-8376
eISSN: 2564-8896

NOD2: Activation During Bacterial and Viral Infections, Polymorphisms and Potential as Therapeutic Target

Diana Alhelí Domínguez-Martínez, Laboratorio de Inmunología Celular e Inmunopatogénesis, Departamento de Inmunología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City, México
Daniel N√ļ√Īez-Avellaneda, Laboratory of Cellular Immunology and Immunopathogenesis, Department of Immunology, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biol√≥gicas, Instituto Polit√©cnico Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico
Carlos Alberto Casta√Ī√≥n-S√°nchez, Subdirecci√≥n de Ense√Īanza e Investigaci√≥n, Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de Oaxaca, San Bartolo Coyotepec, Oax., M√©xico
Ma Isabel Salazar, Department of Immunology, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico

Nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing receptors or NLRs are a family of receptors that detect both, molecules associated to pathogens and alarmins, and are located mainly in the cytoplasm. NOD2 belongs to the NLR family and is a dynamic receptor capable of interacting with multiple proteins and modulate immune responses in a stimuli-dependent manner. The experimental evidence shows that interaction between NOD2 structural domains and the effector proteins shape the overall response against bacterial or viral infections. Other reports have focused on the importance of NOD2 not only in infection but also in maintaining tissue homeostasis. However, not only protein interactions relate to function but also certain polymorphisms in the gene that encodes NOD2 have been associated with inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn’s disease. Here, we review the importance and general characteristics of NOD2, discussing its participation in infections caused by bacteria and viruses as well as its interaction with other pathogen recognition receptors or effectors to induce antibacterial and antiviral responses. Finally, the role of NOD2 in chronic inflammatory conditions and its potential to be targeted therapeutically are examined.

Keywords: NOD2. Inflammasome. Infection. Polymorphisms. Inflammatory disease.