ISSN: 0034-8376
eISSN: 2564-8896
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Abstract

Molecular Markers for the Diagnosis of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection and Triage of Human Papillomavirus-Positive Women

VOLUME - NUMBER / (Forthcoming Articles)

Kirvis Torres-Poveda, Center for Research in Infectious Diseases, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Mor.; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT)-Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Mor.; México
Patricia Piña-Sánchez, Unit for Medical Research in Oncological Diseases, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Mexico City, Mexico
Verónica Vallejo-Ruiz, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Oriente (CIBIOR), IMSS, Atlixco, Pue., Mexico
Marcela Lizano, Unit of Biomedical Research in Cancer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología-Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico City, Mexico
Aurelio Cruz-Valdez, Population Health Research Center, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Mor. México
Paula Juárez-Sánchez, Department of Clinical Research, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Mexico City, Mexico
Jaime de la Garza-Salazar, Departments of Clinical Research and Medical Oncology, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Mexico City, Mexico
Joaquín Manzo-Merino, Department of Basic Research, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Mexico City; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT)-Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Mexico City; Mexico

Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) increases the likelihood of developing cervical cancer (CC). A plethora of cellular processes is required to produce pre-malignant lesions, which in turn may become malignant if left untreated. Those changes are induced by viral oncoproteins, which represent an ideal target to identify the viral presence, or by some particularities of the host that ultimately promote the establishment of CC. This article describes the different methods used for HPV detection and quantification, as well as the current trend of secondary screening approaches to detect premalignant lesions and CC. In addition, we analyzed validated biomarkers and those under clinical investigation for the classification (triage) of women at risk of developing CC after an initial positive HPV test and that could be used as prognostic biomarkers for CC. The use of molecular biomarkers, together with the detection of HPV DNA sequences, provides a high impact diagnostic and prognostic tool in the detection of patients at increased risk of developing CC and also may guide their clinical management. In addition, some of those biomarkers could represent pharmacological targets for the future design of therapeutic approaches to CC treatment.

Keywords: Human papillomavirus. Cervical neoplasm. Prevention. Diagnosis. Triage. Cytology. Biomarkers.

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