ISSN: 0034-8376
eISSN: 2564-8896






Pharmacogenomics: Current Actionable Variants



Vanessa González-Covarrubias, Pharmacogenomics Laboratory, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, SSA, Mexico City, Mexico
Karla Lozano, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, SSA, Mexico City, Mexico
Tomas Texis, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, SSA, Mexico City, Mexico
Cintia K. Guzmán-Cruz, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, SSA, Mexico City, Mexico
Mauricio Rodríguez-Dorantes, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, SSA, Mexico City, Mexico
Kenneth Rubio-Carrasco, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico City, Mexico
Luz H. Méndez-Lorenzo, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, SSA, Mexico City, Mexico
Xavier Soberón, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, SSA, Mexico City, Mexico


Pharmacogenomics (PGx), one of the several tools of precision medicine, has been slowly implemented in the clinic during the past decades. This process generally starts with direct and indirect genotype-phenotype associations of gene variants and drug efficacy, or adverse drug reactions, followed by replication and validation studies. Institutional efforts led by the PGx Research Network, The PGx Knowledge Base, and The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium, mine all available data for further validation or research in additional populations. This data mining gives rise to a detailed classification of over 200 druggene pairs which, with enough documentation, may become part of a publishable guideline to aid clinicians in drug selection and dosing using genetics. The US Food and Drug Administration utilizes these guidelines to issue warnings and recommendations for specific drugs and their cautioning serves clinicians and pharmacists worldwide. Here, we aim to discuss the steps of this process and list existing actionable drug-gene pairs. Moreover, we describe the current status of PGx knowledge in populations from Mexico for actionable variants on the 19 genes listed by present PGx guidelines affecting 47 drugs. Our review collects current allele frequency information for these actionable variants, lists gaps of PGx information for relevant markers, and highlights the importance of continuing PGx research in Native and Mestizo populations.



Keywords: Pharmacogenomics. Drug efficacy. Pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamics. Mestizos. Natives.