ISSN: 0034-8376
eISSN: 2564-8896






Cardioembolic Stroke: Risk Factors, Clinical Features, and Early Outcome in 956 Consecutive Patients



Kilian Griñán, Cerebrovascular Division, Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitari Sagrat Cor, Barcelona, Spain
Adrià Arboix, Cerebrovascular Division, Neurology Department, Hospital Universitari del Sagrat Cor, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
Joan Massons, Cerebrovascular Division, Neurology Department, Hospital Universitari del Sagrat Cor, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
Laura Díez, Cerebrovascular Division, Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitari Sagrat Cor, Barcelona, Spain
Enric Vergés, Cerebrovascular Division, Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitari Sagrat Cor, Barcelona, Spain
Francisco Gil, Cerebrovascular Division, Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitari Sagrat Cor, Barcelona, Spain
Jordi Arboix-Alió, Department of Sports Sciences, Ramon Llull University, Faculty of Psychology, Education and Sport Sciences (FPCEE), Blanquerna, Barcelona, Spain
María-José Sánchez-López, Library, Hospital Universitari Sagrat Cor, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Luís García-Eroles, Unit for Organization, Planning and Information Systems, Hospital Universitari del Sagrat Cor, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain


Background: There is little information about the early clinical features of cardioembolic stroke before complementary examinations. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors, clinical features, and early outcomes of cardioembolic stroke. Methods: Retrospective study based on prospectively collected data available from a university medical center hospitalbased stroke registry. Consecutive patients diagnosed with cardioembolic infarction were selected and compared to those diagnosed with an atherothrombotic stroke. Predictors of cardioembolic infarction were assessed by multivariate analysis. Results: From a cohort of 4597 consecutive patients, we studied 956 patients diagnosed with cardioembolic infarction (80 years [standard deviation (SD) 9.14]; 63% women) and 945 with atherothrombotic infarction (77.01 years SD 9.75; 49.8% women). The univariate comparative analysis reported that advanced age (>- 85 years), female gender, atrial fibrillation (AF), ischemic heart disease, and congestive heart failure were significantly more frequent in the cardioembolic group, whereas hypertension, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, heavy smoking, hyperlipidemia, and previous transient ischemic attack were significant in the atherothrombotic group. In the logistic regression model, AF (odds ratio [OR] 15.75, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.14-20.42), ischemic heart disease (OR 3.12, 95% CI: 2.16-4.5), female gender (OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.22-2.00), and sudden-onset (OR 1.97, 95% CI: 1.54-2.51), were independent significant predictors of cardioembolic stroke. Conclusions: Potential cardioembolic stroke requires a comprehensive evaluation, since early classification and identification through predictors would improve effective management.



Keywords: Aged. Atrial fibrillation. Intracranial embolism and thrombosis. Risk factors. Stroke/classification. Stroke/etiology.