ISSN: 0034-8376
eISSN: 2564-8896






Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Associated with Renal Function in Apparently Healthy Young Students: A Cross-Sectional Study



Lucia M. Pérez-Navarro, Department of Nephrology, Hospital General de México "Dr. Eduardo Liceaga", Mexico City, Mexico;
Rafael Valdez-Ortiz, Department of Nephrology, Hospital General de México "Dr. Eduardo Liceaga", Mexico City, Mexico;
Araceli Alegría-Díaz, Department of Nephrology, Hospital General de México "Dr. Eduardo Liceaga", Mexico City, Mexico;
Miguel Murguía-Romero, Iztacala School of Graduate Studies, National Autonomous University of Mexico (FES-I.-UNAM), Tlalnepantla, Edo. Mex.; National Laboratory in Health, Molecular Diagnosis and Environmental Effect in Chronic-Degenerative Diseases, UNAM, Tlalnepantla, Edo. Mex., Mexico
Rafael Jiménez-Flores, Iztacala School of Graduate Studies, National Autonomous University of Mexico (FES-I.-UNAM), Tlalnepantla, Edo. Mex.; National Laboratory in Health, Molecular Diagnosis and Environmental Effect in Chronic-Degenerative Diseases, UNAM, Tlalnepantla, Edo. Mex.; Mexico
Rafael Villalobos-Molina, Iztacala School of Graduate Studies, National Autonomous University of Mexico (FES-I.-UNAM), Tlalnepantla, Edo. Mexico; National Laboratory in Health, Molecular Diagnosis and Environmental Effect in Chronic-Degenerative Diseases, UNAM, Tlalnepantla, Edo. Mex., Mexico;
Srinivas Mummidi, South Texas Diabetes and Obesity Institute and Department of Human Genetics, School of Medicine, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, Texas, USA
Ravindranath Duggirala, South Texas Diabetes and Obesity Institute and Department of Human Genetics, School of Medicine, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, Texas, USA
Juan C. López-Alvarenga, South Texas Diabetes and Obesity Institute and Department of Human Genetics, School of Medicine, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, Texas, USA; Universidad México-Americana del Norte, Reynosa, Tamps., Mexico


Background: Cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) appear decades before developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adulthood. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify the prevalence and association between CMRFs and kidney function in apparently healthy young adults (18-25 years old). Methods: We included 5531 freshman year students. Data collected on CMRFs included central obesity, high body mass index (hBMI >25), blood pressure, glycemia, lipids, uric acid (UA >6.8 mg/dL), and insulin. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated by CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration formula. We used logistic regression and a log linear for odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence level) and probabilities. Results: The presence of any CMRF was observed in 78% (4312) of individuals; GFR ≥120/130 mL/min/1.73 m2sc was found in 33%, GFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2sc in 3%, and proteinuria in 3%. Factors associated with high GFR were hBMI (OR 1.3 [1.14, 1.47]), UA (OR 0.2 [0.15, 0.26]), highdensity lipoprotein (HDL) (OR 1.4 [1.2, 1.6]), and insulin resistance (OR 1.3 [1.05, 1.7]). CMRF associated with low GFR was UA (OR 1.8 [1.3, 2.6]), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.66 [1.05, 2.6]), and proteinuria (OR 3.4 [2.07, 5.7]). Proteinuria was associated with high UA (OR 1.59 [1.01, 2.5]) and hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.8 [1.03, 3.18]). The sole presence of hBMI+UA predicted low GFR with p = 0.6 and hBMI+UA+low HDL predicted proteinuria with p = 0.55. Conclusions: CMRFs were highly prevalent among this freshman student population and were associated with proteinuria and GFR abnormalities. Future studies should focus on public health programs to prevent or delay the development of CKD.



Keywords: Cardiometabolic risk. Probability. Glomerular filtration rate. Healthy students. Kidney function tests.